Gửi bài này cho bạn bè March 12, 2000


The Holy Father:

Brothers and Sisters, let us turn with trust to God our Father, who is merciful and compassionate, slow to anger, great in love and fidelity, and ask him to accept the repentance of his people who humbly confess their sins, and to grant them mercy.

All pray for a moment in silence.


A representative of the Roman Curia

Let us pray that our confession and repentance will be inspired by the Holy Spirit, that our sorrow will be conscious and deep, and that, humbly viewing the sins of the past in an authentic "purification of memory", we will be committed to the path of true conversion.

Silent prayer.

The Holy Father:

Lord God, your pilgrim Church, which you ever sanctify in the blood of your Son, counts among her children in every age members whose holiness shines brightly forth and members whose disobedience to you contradicts the faith we profess and the Holy Gospel. You, who remain ever faithful, even when we are unfaithful, forgive our sins and grant that we may bear true witness to you before all men and women. We ask this through Christ our Lord.

R. Amen.


Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie eleison.

The assembly repeats:

Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie eleison.

A lamp is lit before the Crucifix.


A representative of the Roman Curia:

Let us pray that each one of us, looking to the Lord Jesus, meek and humble of heart, will recognize that even men of the Church, in the name of faith and morals, have sometimes used methods not in keeping with the Gospel in the solemn duty of defending the truth.

Silent prayer.

The Holy Father:

Lord, God of all men and women, in certain periods of history Christians have at times given in to intolerance and have not been faithful to the great commandment of love, sullying in this way the face of the Church, your Spouse. Have mercy on your sinful children and accept our resolve to seek and promote truth in the gentleness of charity, in the firm knowledge that truth can prevail only in virtue of truth itself. We ask this through Christ our Lord.

R. Amen.

R. Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie eleison.

A lamp is lit before the Crucifix.


A representative of the Roman Curia:

Let us pray that our recognition of the sins which have rent the unity of the Body of Christ and wounded fraternal charity will facilitate the way to reconciliation and communion among all Christians.

Silent prayer.

The Holy Father:

Merciful Father, on the night before his Passion your Son prayed for the unity of those who believe in him: in disobedience to his will, however, believers have opposed one another, becoming divided, and have mutually condemned one another and fought against one another. We urgently implore your forgiveness and we beseech the gift of a repentant heart, so that all Christians, reconciled with you and with one another will be able, in one body and in one spirit, to experience anew the joy of full communion. We ask this through Christ our Lord.

R. Amen.

R. Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie eleison.

A lamp is lit before the Crucifix.


A representative of the Roman Curia:

Let us pray that, in recalling the sufferings endured by the people of Israel throughout history, Christians will acknowledge the sins committed by not a few of their number against the people of the Covenant and the blessings, and in this way will purify their hearts.

Silent prayer.

The Holy Father:

God of our fathers, you chose Abraham and his descendants to bring your Name to the Nations: we are deeply saddened by the behaviour of those who in the course of history have caused these children of yours to suffer, and asking your forgiveness we wish to commit ourselves to genuine brotherhood with the people of the Covenant. We ask this through Christ our Lord.

R. Amen

R. Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie eleison.

A lamp is lit before the Crucifix.


A representative of the Roman Curia:

Let us pray that contemplating Jesus, our Lord and our Peace, Christians will be able to repent of the words and attitudes caused by pride, by hatred, by the desire to dominate others, by enmity towards members of other religions and towards the weakest groups in society, such as immigrants and itinerantes

Silent prayer.

The Holy Father:

Lord of the world, Father of all, through your Son you asked us to love our enemies, to do good to those who hate us and to pray for those who persecute us. Yet Christians have often denied the Gospel; yielding to a mentality of power, they have violated the rights of ethnic groups and peoples, and shown contempt for their cultures and religious traditions: be patient and merciful towards us, and grant us your forgiveness! We ask this through Christ our Lord.

R. Amen.

R. Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie, eleison.

A lamp is lit before the Crucifix.


A Representative of the Roman Curia:

Let us pray for all those who have suffered offences against their human dignity and whose rights have been trampled; let us pray for women, who are all too often humiliated and emarginated, and let us acknowledge the forms of acquiescence in these sins of which Christians too have been guilty.

Silent prayer.

The Holy Father:

Lord God, our Father, you created the human being, man and woman, in your image and likeness and you willed the diversity of peoples within the unity of the human family. At times, however, the equality of your sons and daughters has not been acknowledged, and Christians have been guilty of attitudes of rejection and exclusion, consenting to acts of discrimination on the basis of racial and ethnic differences. Forgive us and grant us the grace to heal the wounds still present in your community on account of sin, so that we will all feel ourselves to be your sons and daughters. We ask this through Christ our Lord.

R. Amen.

R. Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie, eleison.

A lamp is lit before the Crucifix.


A Representative of the Roman Curia:

Let us pray for all the men and women of the world, especially for minors who are victims of abuse, for the poor, the alienated, the disadvantaged; let us pray for those who are most defenceless, the unborn killed in their mother's womb or even exploited for experimental purposes by those who abuse the promise of biotechnology and distort the aims of science.

Silent prayer.

The Holy Father:

God, our Father, you always bear the cry of the poor. How many times have Christians themselves not recognized you in the hungry, the thirsty and the naked, in the persecuted, the imprisoned, and in those incapable of defending themselves, especially in the first stages of life. For all those who bave committed acts of injustice by trusting in wealth and power and showing contempt for the "little ones" who are so dear to you, we ask your fogiveness: have mercy on us and accept our repentance. We ask this through Christ our Lord.

R. Amen.

R. Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie, eleison; Kyrie, eleison.

A lamp is lit before the Crucifix.

Concluding Prayer

The Holy Father:

Most merciful Father, your Son, Jesus Christ, the judge of the living and the dead, in the humility of his first coming redeemed humanity from sin and in his glorious return he will demand an account of every sin. Grant that our forebears, our brothers and sisters, and we, your servants, who by the grace of the Holy Spirit turn back to you in whole-hearted repentance, may experience your mercy and receive the forgiveness of our sins. We ask this through Christ our Lord.

R. Amen.

As a sign of penance and veneration the Holy Father embraces and kisses the Crucifix.




Sau đây là một vài trong những bài báo loan tin về ngày "Tổng Xin Lỗi" lịch sử trên:


San Francisco Chronicle

A Partial Confession From the Pope

Tuesday, March 14, 2000


THE CONFESSIONALS at Annunciation Church had red curtains heavy enough to keep my childhood sins from spilling into the sanctuary, where other sinners waited in pews like voters for their turn in the booth. I always dreaded confession, with its demand that I own up to my mistakes and weaknesses. And I was skeptical of the priest's assurance that by reciting a specific number of ``Hail Marys'' and ``Our Fathers,'' my soul would be wiped clean.

(I became especially suspicious of the whole process when, in eighth grade at a Catholic school in Florida, I was made to troop by myself down the church aisle, kneel at the altar, and in front of the whole class, pray for God's forgiveness for the offensive sin of forgetting my hat.)

Despite my skepticism, I'd usually emerge from church after confession on Saturday afternoons feeling as if I could reinvent myself as a person who didn't fight with her brothers and sisters and wasn't obsessively jealous of her friend Maureen's new white go-go boots. Asking forgiveness cleared away the past, giving me room to build something new.

I thought of those childhood confessions as I read of the remarkable ``Jubilee Year'' homily Pope John Paul II delivered on Sunday. He repented for the Catholic Church's sins over the past 2,000 years, which included injustices toward Jews, immigrants, indigenous people, the poor, the unborn and women.

``Lord God . . . at times the equality of your sons and daughters has not been acknowledged,'' he said in reference to women, ``and Christians have been guilty of attitudes of rejection and exclusion . . .''

I'll say.

As the pope spoke yesterday about the sins of gender inequality, I couldn't help but be struck -- again, still -- by the absence of women in the Vatican's vast sea of robed clergy. Did the pope grasp the irony?

I called my 67-year-old aunt in Nairobi yesterday to ask her about the pope's apology. She is a Catholic nun who has worked as a missionary in Africa for four decades. The divisiveness she has seen in African communities in the name of faith has been mirrored in her own religion. The Catholic Church is no closer to allowing women into decision-making roles at the highest levels than it was when she entered the convent as a young woman.

``Nothing has changed. And nothing is going to change under this pope. Women do not have an equal place in the church. It's one of the last bastions of inequality in modern society,'' she said. ``About two years ago, the pope said the topic of women being ordained as priests couldn't even be discussed. The topic couldn't even be discussed!''

Sr. Helene O'Sullivan is the president of Maryknoll Sisters in Ossining, N.Y., the order to which my aunt belongs. She is a patient woman, more patient than many of her sisters. She saw the pope's apology, like Saturday confessions, as a way of to cleanse the church's soul and allow for a new beginning. She called on the Catholic Church to be a model of equality for the world.

``Once you ask for forgiveness, you then ask, `Where do we go from here?''' O'Sullivan said. ``This is the start of a process, not an end.''

It is quite a remarkable and admirable thing that a church that considers itself holy, that believes its popes are guided by the hand of God, would acknowledge and ask forgiveness for mistakes of the past.

But what about the mistakes of the present? Let's hope acknowledgment of today's exclusion and rejection of women won't have to wait for whoever is pope during the next Jubilee.


E-mail: joanryan@sfgate.com.

This article appeared on page A - 21 of the San Francisco Chronicle




The Pope's empty apology

link: http://www.ivanfoster.org/article.asp?date=5/1/2000&seq=5

Pope John Paul II has been, above all, the Pope of ecumenical unity. His extensive world travels have been done in the name of Christian unity. The chief goal of his papacy has been to promote the ecumenical unity defined by the Second Vatican Council of the 1960s. The Council, in its "Decree on Ecumenism", stated the object of that activity: "The results will be that, little by little, as the obstacles to perfect ecclesiastical communion are overcome, all Christians will be gathered together in a common celebration of the Eucharist, into the unity of the one and only church-- this unity, we believe, subsists in the Catholic Church as something she can never lose."

Rome still claims to be the one true church of Jesus Christ and it has no intention of giving this claim up. Its goal in ecumenical relations is to bring all of the "separated brethren" into its fold. John Paul II has pursued this goal with great vigour and has been extremely successful. Under John Paul II's direction, ecumenical dialogue has entangled and ensnared most denominations, including the Presbyterians, Methodists, Anglicans and Salvation Army and some Baptists in Ireland and has resulted in astounding success.

Lutherans have agreed with Rome over the doctrine of justification. An Anglican commission has stated that the papacy is a gift to the churches. Evangelical leaders in America have called for Evangelicals and Roman Catholics to work together as brethren for the common aim of unity under Rome. Under John Paul II's direction, Roman Catholics have infiltrated every sphere of ecumenical activity throughout the world. They work hand in hand with the Bible Societies at every level. They hold leadership positions in local and regional clergy associations and in national church councils. Pope John Paul II has also given close direction to the Catholic "renewal" movement and its far-reaching ecumenical alliances with Charismatics and Pentecostals.

Now, at the end of his life and papacy, John Paul II is leaving a final legacy to the cause of ecclesiastical unity, by attempting to remove a stubborn barrier to the same -- Rome's vicious centuries-long persecution against all who refused to accept her authority and doctrines.
On March 7, the Vatican Press Office released a document entitled "Memory and Reconciliation: The Church and the Faults of the Past." On March 12, the Pope presided over a ceremony called "The Day of Pardon" in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
Central to the Pope's apology was the sentence, "We are asking pardon for the divisions among Christians, for the use of violence that some have committed in the service of truth, and for attitudes of mistrust and hostility assumed toward followers of other religions." It is clear that whatever the Pope is referring to are actions taken in the service of truth. The method may have been wrong but the objective was not. No change here!
vague and meaningless
This may have the appearance of a genuine apology from Rome for some but it is not. In reality, it is a mere façade. There is nothing of real substance to these "apologies." Even by the Catholic Church's own standards for confession of sin, these apologies are without substance. The Catholic sacrament of Confession requires that the sins be stated specifically.
That there is no specificity whatsoever to the papal "apology" is even admitted in the document "Memory and Reconciliation." Note the following plain statement: "The purpose of the text is, therefore, not to examine particular historical cases but rather to clarify the presuppositions that ground repentance for past faults." The press even noted the generality of the Pope's words. The Associated Press report for March 13, entitled "Pope Seeks Pardon for Catholics," observed the lack of specificity, noting that the Pope "spoke mostly in general terms, not mentioning the Holocaust, the Inquisition or Crusades by name and listing few specific groups." Significantly, Roman Catholic commentators clearly show us the degree of sincerity there is in the Pope's words. A BBC report on the subject read as follows: "Father Bernardo Cervellera of the Catholic news agency Fides, told the BBC that the Pope would be distinguishing between the church and its flawed members. 'The Pope has done a very good job in convincing all the people in the Vatican and the church that to ask for forgiveness doesn't touch the holiness of the church,' Father Cervellera said."

The Pope has not confessed the heinous crimes committed by Popery during the 600-year 'Holy Inquisition" against those who simply believed and practised the Word of God, which was instigated formally by Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) and was conducted mercilessly by the popes who succeeded him, century after century, until finally Rome was no longer politically capable of sustaining it in the late 1700s. The Inquisition, set up in the name of Christ, resulted in the torment and murder of millions of Christ's own humble servants, whose only crime was a rejection of Catholic heresy and a commitment to follow the Bible as their sole authority for faith and practice. The Inquisition covered much of Europe and other parts of the world in a darkness of unspeakable fear which lasted for more than six centuries. The Inquisition was not a 'mistake'. It was the official policy of the Roman Catholic 'Church' for centuries. No Pope has ever admitted this. John Paul II has not confessed the Inquisition; he has not labelled his fellow popes the murderers they were.

The Pope has not confessed the sin of usurpation of Christ's position in the Church. This usurpation is found, among other ways, in the claims of the Catholic papacy and priesthood which usurp offices and titles which Jesus Christ and God the Father and the Holy Spirit alone can possess. The Pope claims to be the Head of the church, the Vicar of Christ, the Holy Father, to be a priest ordained after the order of Melchisedec, to be able to forgive sin, to possess a treasury of grace which the pope and his priests can dispense through the sacraments.

The Pope has not confessed the sins of the outlandish claims of priesthood. These include such claims as that the Roman priests can turn the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper into the very Christ, that they can accomplish the release of souls from a mythical purgatory, and that Mary is the immaculate Queen of Heaven

What would the Pope have to do if he were really to repent of the sins of his organisation?
Repentance means a change of mind which results in a change of action. When the Corinthians repented, the Apostle Paul said that he could SEE their repentance in the great change which occurred in their lives. For godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation not to be repented of: but the sorrow of the world worketh death. For behold this selfsame thing, that ye sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you, yea, what clearing of yourselves, yea, what indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what vehement desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what revenge! In all things ye have approved yourselves to be clear in this matter , (2 Corinthians 7:10,11). This is not what we see in the Pope's alleged repentance.

When anyone now protests that Rome has bloody hands and a wicked heart and points to history as evidence, the ecumenists can smile knowingly and claim that Rome has apologized for all of that. This brilliant ecumenical manoeuvre also helps keep Catholics within the fold by appearing to rob Bible-believing Protestants of a significant charge against Rome.

But God has not been deceived by the Pope's chicanery. His sins, and those of his predecessors and of those who will yet follow his pernicious ways will one day come before God for judgment. And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues. For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities. Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double. How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow. Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her , Revelation 18:4-8.



Pope says sorry for sins of church

Sweeping apology for attacks on Jews, women and minorities defies theologians' warnings

Rory Carroll in Rome
Monday March 13, 2000
The Guardian

Saving one of his most audacious initiatives for the twilight of his papacy, John Paul II yesterday attempted to purify the soul of the Roman Catholic church by making a sweeping apology for 2,000 years of violence, persecution and blunders.

From the altar of St Peter's Basilica in Rome he led Catholicism into unchartered territory by seeking forgiveness for sins committed against Jews, heretics, women, Gypsies and native peoples.

Fighting through trembles and slurrings caused by Parkinson's disease, the Pope electrified ranks of cardinals and bishops by pleading for a future that would not repeat the mistakes. "Never again," he said.

Centuries of hate and rivalry could not recur in the third millennium. "We forgive and we ask forgiveness. We are asking pardon for the divisions among Christians, for the use of violence that some have committed in the service of truth, and for attitudes of mistrust and hostility assumed towards followers of other religions."

Plea for brotherhood

Defying warnings from some theologians that the unprecedented apology would undermine the church's authority, the 79-year-old pontiff asked God to forgive the persecution of the Jews. "We are deeply saddened by the behaviour of those who in the course of history have caused these children of yours to suffer, and asking your forgiveness we wish to commit ourselves to genuine brotherhood."

Wearing the purple vestments of lenten mourning, the Pope sought pardon for seven categories of sin: general sins; sins in the service of truth; sins against Christian unity; against the Jews; against respect for love, peace and cultures; against the dignity of women and minorities; and against human rights.

Ethnic groups had endured "contempt for their cultures and religious traditions". Women were "all too often humiliated and marginalised". Trust in wealth and power had obscured the church's responsibility to the poor and oppressed.

There was no reference to homosexuals, who had asked to be included for suffering theocratic violence. The Pope did not identify guilty individuals or name the crusades, the Inquisition or the Holocaust, but the references were clear.

Five Vatican cardinals and two bishops confessed sins on behalf of the church during the ceremony. Cardinal Edward Cassidy recalled the "sufferings of the people of Israel" asked divine pardon for the "sins committed by not a few [Catholics] against the people of the covenant".

'Warped' view

Several Jewish leaders praised the sermon as historic and significant but Israel's chief rabbi said he was deeply frustrated by the Pope's failure to mention the Holocaust, and described the service as "a severely warped view of history".

Rabbi Israel Meir Lau joined other Israelis in expressing hope that the pope had omitted acknowledging the church's passivity during the Holocaust only because he was planning a specific apology during next week's pilgrimage to the holy land.

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, head of the congregation of the doctrine of the faith, confessed to the sins of the congregation's predecessor, the Inquisition. "Even men of the church, in the name of faith and morals, have sometimes used methods not in keeping with the Gospel," he said.

Applause from the congregation greeted the Pope's arrival in the basilica. He kneeled before the Pieta, Michelangelo's statue of the dead Christ in the arms of his mother, before being wheeled to the altar. He leaned on his silver staff and it took several attempts for him to get out of his chair to kiss a crucifix. The Vatican no longer denies the Pope has Parkinson's disease. An operation to remove a tumour, several falls and an assassination attempt have left him hunched and stiff.

Seeking forgiveness has been a leitmotif of his papacy since his election in 1978. He has apologised for the crusades, the massacre of French Protestants, the trial of Galileo and anti-semitism.

Yesterday's apology was by far the most sweeping and an unprecedented act for the leader of a major religion. One of the highlights of this year's jubilee, or holy year, it was the result of four years' research by a panel of 28 theologians and scholars.

Disquiet that the apology was a beautiful gesture but a theological mistake bubbled to the surface last week.

Echoing widespread concern from liberal as well as conservative theologians, the Bishop of Como, Alessandro Maggiolini, said: "In whose name, exactly, is the holy father asking pardon? He is relying on a group of experts, but tomorrow another group of experts might come up with different examples."

Other churchmen said the gesture would be seen by Muslims as a sign of weakness and by secular enemies as a cue to launch further attacks.

The Pope's persistence in ramming through the initiative, despite resistance inside the Vatican, has doused claims that he has effectively retired and abandoned policy-making.

The document that provides the theological framework emphasises a distinction between the sins committed by the church's sons and daughters and the church itself, which remains holy and immaculate.

Speaking after the ceremony to the crowd in St Peter's Square, the Pope stressed he was seeking forgiveness not from those who had been wronged, but from God. "Only he can do that."

2,000 years of violence and persecution

The Crusades

Pope Urban II, anxious to assert Rome's authority in the east, sent a military expedition in 1095 to reconquer the holy land. The crusaders ravaged the countries they passed through and massacred the Muslim, Jewish and even Christian population of Jerusalem after capturing it in 1099. After 200 years of conflict Muslim armies drove them out for good, but the crusaders' symbol of the red cross remains provocative.

The Inquisition

The attempt to combat suspected apostates, Jews and Muslims at the time of the Reformation spawned tribunals in Europe and the new world that tortured and executed thousands. Ecclesiastical queasiness about flowing blood led to the use of racks, thumbscrews and red-hot metal instead of blades; 2,000 people were burned at the stake during the tenure of Spain's first grand inquisitor, Tomas de Torquemada.

The Holocaust

Pope Pius XII never publicly condemned the Nazis' persecution of Jews, even when they were being rounded up and deported from Rome. His silence is partly blamed for the failure of Germany's Catholics to resist Hitler. Anti-Jewish Catholic doctrines such as the claim that the Jews murdered Christ were said to have ideologically underpinned nazism. Vatican officials allegedly helped Nazis escape Europe after



Tradition In Action

The Bad Effects of the Papal Apologies

Marian T. Horvat, Ph.D.

My friend Jan was not convinced that the latest papal apology for the Inquisition (see last article) was really so harmful to the Church.

“Even if the Inquisition was not as bad as historians have portrayed it, there were still some abuses. Doesn’t it show humility and honesty on the part of the Pope to ask pardon for the wrong things the Church may have done?” Jan argued. “Doesn’t it set a good example for us, since that’s what we teach our children to do – apologize when we do something wrong?”

M005_PopeApology_InVat_1-2000.jpg - 38776 Bytes

JPII at a Request for Pardon religious service
on March 12, 2000.
He asked pardon for the Church's past hostility
toward followers of other religions,
for the Crusades, Inquisition, etc.

Inside the Vatican, January 2001

Her comment unknowingly illustrates the exact point I would like to highlight. This apology, as well as the more than 100 others that John Paul II has made for the supposed wrongdoings of the Church, are presenting a new and false progressivist notion of what the Church is. The Church, in fact, does not “do wrong things,” as papal apologies induce the faithful to think.

The Church, as an institution, is pure and sinless, founded by Christ and preserved by God to be free of error, both in the past and in the present. It is only individual Church members, be they Popes, Bishops or the simple faithful, who sin.

This is the authentic teaching of the Church, Jan, as you and I learned it. But do your children or their friends realize this? Or is there some confusion in their minds caused by the constant papal apologies for the past “sins of the Church”? If you analyze these apologies carefully, you can see that most of them insert a short line, a footnote, or a parenthetical phrase attributing the fault to the members of the Church. For the scholars and theologians, therefore, the rule is maintained: no error of the Church but only of her members. However, it is the general line of the apology that normally remains in the minds of the faithful: the Church is sinful. In face of this contradiction, one cannot help but wonder: Is it the Vatican’s intention to cause this second impression?

At any rate, what sticks in the mind of so many Catholics, especially young ones schooled in “Vatican II catechism,” is that the Church made mistakes and even sinned in her past, so now the correct action for the Church is to repent and do penance. This would justify the continuous reform in customs and institutions we have seen since Vatican II. It explains why the Church would supposedly need new structures, because the old would be inherently flawed.

If we had a contaminated Church, which we do not, then we have a Church in need of evaluation and change, uncertain in her teaching. Yesterday she made a mistake. Today she corrects it and repents for her past. Tomorrow, well, who knows what tomorrow will bring as the Church evolves?

M005_RatzingerApology_InVat_1-2000.jpg - 23758 Bytes

At the same ceremony Cardinal Ratzinger lights a lamp asking pardon for sins of intolerance, one of the seven petitions for forgiveness.

Inside the Vatican, January 2001

This notion of a sinning Church that the progressivists inculcate in the spirit of the naïve faithful, is affirmed in documents of Vatican II. Lumen gentium, for example, states the Church is “at the same time holy and always in need of being purified,” that she must always pursue “the path of penance and renewal.” (LG 8).

It is not difficult to understand from this that the Church would need a continual reform, as interpreted by Karl Rahner and Yves Congar and so many other progressivist ecclesiastics. Such theologians, suspect for heresy before Vatican II, have suddenly become the experts who cannot be questioned, even though their bad theology did not change. They are the ones who need to make apologies for their past and repent. But they have not. Instead, they are demanding the Church do exactly that: make apologies for her past and repent.

When the Pope apologizes for the past sins of the Church, he does not appear at all like one being humble and honest. He is implicitly affirming a new conception of the Church, and also the Faith, one constantly reforming, changing, and evolving.

I hope this explains, Jan, why there is something profoundly wrong with the Pope’s apology for the Inquisition and for so many other past militant actions of the Holy Catholic Church.



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